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Local symptoms may occur due to the mass of the tumor or its ulceration. For example, mass effects from lung cancer can block the bronchus resulting in cough or pneumonia ; esophageal cancer can cause narrowing of the esophagus , making it difficult or painful to swallow; and colorectal cancer may lead to narrowing or blockages in the bowel , affecting bowel habits.

Masses in breasts or testicles may produce observable lumps. Ulceration can cause bleeding that can lead to symptoms such as coughing up blood lung cancer , anemia or rectal bleeding colon cancer , blood in the urine bladder cancer , or abnormal vaginal bleeding endometrial or cervical cancer.

Although localized pain may occur in advanced cancer, the initial tumor is usually painless. Some cancers can cause a buildup of fluid within the chest or abdomen.

Systemic symptoms may occur due to the body's response to the cancer. This may include fatigue, unintentional weight loss, or skin changes.

Some types of cancer such as Hodgkin disease , leukemias and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever. Some systemic symptoms of cancer are caused by hormones or other molecules produced by the tumor, known as paraneoplastic syndromes.

Common paraneoplastic syndromes include hypercalcemia which can cause altered mental state , constipation and dehydration, or hyponatremia that can also cause altered mental status, vomiting, headache or seizures.

Cancer can spread from its original site by local spread, lymphatic spread to regional lymph nodes or by hematogenous spread via the blood to distant sites, known as metastasis.

When cancer spreads through the blood, it may spread through the body but is more likely to travel to certain areas depending on the cancer type.

The symptoms of metastatic cancers depend on the tumor location and can include enlarged lymph nodes which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard , enlarged liver or enlarged spleen , which can be felt in the abdomen , pain or fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms.

It is not generally possible to prove what caused a particular cancer because the various causes do not have specific fingerprints. For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, the cancer may have developed for one of those reasons.

Excepting the rare transmissions that occur with pregnancies and occasional organ donors , cancer is generally not a transmissible disease.

Exposure to particular substances have been linked to specific types of cancer. These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco is responsible for about one in five cancer deaths worldwide [42] and about one in three in the developed world.

Some specific foods are linked to specific cancers. A high-salt diet is linked to gastric cancer. For example, gastric cancer is more common in Japan due to its high-salt diet [52] while colon cancer is more common in the United States.

Immigrant cancer profiles mirror those of their new country, often within one generation. Oncoviruses viruses that can cause cancer include human papillomavirus cervical cancer , Epstein—Barr virus B-cell lymphoproliferative disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma , Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas , hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses hepatocellular carcinoma and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 T-cell leukemias.

Bacterial infection may also increase the risk of cancer, as seen in Helicobacter pylori -induced gastric carcinoma.

Radiation exposure such as ultraviolet radiation and radioactive material is a risk factor for cancer. Ionizing radiation is not a particularly strong mutagen.

Children are twice as likely to develop radiation-induced leukemia as adults; radiation exposure before birth has ten times the effect.

Medical use of ionizing radiation is a small but growing source of radiation-induced cancers. Ionizing radiation may be used to treat other cancers, but this may, in some cases, induce a second form of cancer.

Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can lead to melanoma and other skin malignancies.

Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones, electric power transmission and other similar sources has been described as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization 's International Agency for Research on Cancer.

The vast majority of cancers are non-hereditary sporadic. Hereditary cancers are primarily caused by an inherited genetic defect.

Less than 0. Statistically for cancers causing most mortality, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when a first-degree relative parent, sibling or child has been diagnosed with it is about 2.

Taller people have an increased risk of cancer because they have more cells than shorter people. Since height is genetically determined to a large extent, taller people have a heritable increase of cancer risk.

Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical, rather than chemical, effects. Physical trauma resulting in cancer is relatively rare.

It is possible that repeated burns on the same part of the body, such as those produced by kanger and kairo heaters charcoal hand warmers , may produce skin cancer, especially if carcinogenic chemicals are also present.

Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to directly cause mutation. Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation.

Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium , prostate, ovary and testis and also of thyroid cancer and bone cancer.

These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene.

Other factors are relevant: obese people have higher levels of some hormones associated with cancer and a higher rate of those cancers.

There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers. People with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk, but this risk decreases with time after diagnosis and strict treatment, probably due to the adoption of a gluten-free diet , which seems to have a protective role against development of malignancy in people with celiac disease.

However, the delay in diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancies. Also, immunomodulators and biologic agents used to treat these diseases may promote developing extra-intestinal malignancies.

Cancer is fundamentally a disease of tissue growth regulation. In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered.

The affected genes are divided into two broad categories. Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division and survival.

Malignant transformation can occur through the formation of novel oncogenes, the inappropriate over-expression of normal oncogenes, or by the under-expression or disabling of tumor suppressor genes.

Typically, changes in multiple genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. Genetic changes can occur at different levels and by different mechanisms.

The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur through errors in mitosis. More common are mutations , which are changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA.

Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies often 20 or more of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material.

Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location.

A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome , or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia and results in production of the BCR - abl fusion protein , an oncogenic tyrosine kinase.

Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter region of a gene and affect its expression , or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product.

Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus , leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants.

Replication of the data contained within the DNA of living cells will probabilistically result in some errors mutations.

Complex error correction and prevention is built into the process and safeguards the cell against cancer. If a significant error occurs, the damaged cell can self-destruct through programmed cell death, termed apoptosis.

If the error control processes fail, then the mutations will survive and be passed along to daughter cells. Some environments make errors more likely to arise and propagate.

Such environments can include the presence of disruptive substances called carcinogens , repeated physical injury, heat, ionising radiation or hypoxia.

The transformation of a normal cell into cancer is akin to a chain reaction caused by initial errors, which compound into more severe errors, each progressively allowing the cell to escape more controls that limit normal tissue growth.

This rebellion-like scenario is an undesirable survival of the fittest , where the driving forces of evolution work against the body's design and enforcement of order.

Once cancer has begun to develop, this ongoing process, termed clonal evolution , drives progression towards more invasive stages.

Characteristic abilities developed by cancers are divided into categories, specifically evasion of apoptosis, self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, sustained angiogenesis, limitless replicative potential, metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism and evasion of immune destruction.

The classical view of cancer is a set of diseases that are driven by progressive genetic abnormalities that include mutations in tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes and chromosomal abnormalities.

Later epigenetic alterations ' role was identified. Epigenetic alterations are functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not change the nucleotide sequence.

Examples of such modifications are changes in DNA methylation hypermethylation and hypomethylation , histone modification [88] and changes in chromosomal architecture caused by inappropriate expression of proteins such as HMGA2 or HMGA1.

These changes may remain through cell divisions , last for multiple generations and can be considered to be epimutations equivalent to mutations.

Epigenetic alterations occur frequently in cancers. As an example, one study listed protein coding genes that were frequently altered in their methylation in association with colon cancer.

These included hypermethylated and 27 hypomethylated genes. While epigenetic alterations are found in cancers, the epigenetic alterations in DNA repair genes, causing reduced expression of DNA repair proteins, may be of particular importance.

Such alterations are thought to occur early in progression to cancer and to be a likely cause of the genetic instability characteristic of cancers.

This is shown in the figure at the 4th level from the top. In the figure, red wording indicates the central role of DNA damage and defects in DNA repair in progression to cancer.

Mutation rates increase substantially in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair [94] [95] or in homologous recombinational repair HRR. Higher levels of DNA damage cause increased mutation right side of figure and increased epimutation.

During repair of DNA double strand breaks, or repair of other DNA damage, incompletely cleared repair sites can cause epigenetic gene silencing.

Deficient expression of DNA repair proteins due to an inherited mutation can increase cancer risks. However, such germline mutations which cause highly penetrant cancer syndromes are the cause of only about 1 percent of cancers.

In sporadic cancers, deficiencies in DNA repair are occasionally caused by a mutation in a DNA repair gene but are much more frequently caused by epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence expression of DNA repair genes.

This is indicated in the figure at the 3rd level. Many studies of heavy metal-induced carcinogenesis show that such heavy metals cause a reduction in expression of DNA repair enzymes, some through epigenetic mechanisms.

DNA repair inhibition is proposed to be a predominant mechanism in heavy metal-induced carcinogenicity. Cancers usually arise from an assemblage of mutations and epimutations that confer a selective advantage leading to clonal expansion see Field defects in progression to cancer.

Mutations, however, may not be as frequent in cancers as epigenetic alterations. An average cancer of the breast or colon can have about 60 to 70 protein-altering mutations, of which about three or four may be "driver" mutations and the remaining ones may be "passenger" mutations.

Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. The dispersed tumors are called metastatic tumors, while the original is called the primary tumor.

Almost all cancers can metastasize. Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both.

The typical steps in metastasis are local invasion , intravasation into the blood or lymph, circulation through the body, extravasation into the new tissue, proliferation and angiogenesis.

Different types of cancers tend to metastasize to particular organs, but overall the most common places for metastases to occur are the lungs , liver , brain and the bones.

Most cancers are initially recognized either because of the appearance of signs or symptoms or through screening.

Neither of these leads to a definitive diagnosis, which requires the examination of a tissue sample by a pathologist. People with suspected cancer are investigated with medical tests.

These commonly include blood tests , X-rays , contrast CT scans and endoscopy. The tissue diagnosis from the biopsy indicates the type of cell that is proliferating, its histological grade , genetic abnormalities and other features.

Together, this information is useful to evaluate the prognosis and to choose the best treatment. Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry are other types of tissue tests.

These tests provide information about molecular changes such as mutations , fusion genes and numerical chromosome changes and may thus also indicate the prognosis and best treatment.

Cancer diagnosis can cause psychological distress and psychosocial interventions, such as talking therapy, may help people with this.

Cancers are classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells resemble and is therefore presumed to be the origin of the tumor. These types include:.

Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma , -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root.

For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma , while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma and a cancer arising from fat cells is called a liposarcoma.

For some common cancers, the English organ name is used. For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Here, the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of cancer under the microscope, which suggests that it has originated in the milk ducts. Benign tumors which are not cancers are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root.

For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma the common name of this frequently occurring benign tumor in the uterus is fibroid.

Confusingly, some types of cancer use the -noma suffix, examples including melanoma and seminoma.

Some types of cancer are named for the size and shape of the cells under a microscope, such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma.

An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast pale area at the center surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue. An invasive colorectal carcinoma top center in a colectomy specimen.

A squamous-cell carcinoma the whitish tumor near the bronchi in a lung specimen. A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen.

Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease cancer risk. Many of these environmental factors are controllable lifestyle choices.

Thus, cancer is generally preventable. While many dietary recommendations have been proposed to reduce cancer risks, the evidence to support them is not definitive.

Diets low in fruits and vegetables and high in red meat have been implicated but reviews and meta-analyses do not come to a consistent conclusion. Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention typically include an emphasis on vegetables , fruit , whole grains and fish and an avoidance of processed and red meat beef, pork, lamb , animal fats , pickled foods and refined carbohydrates.

Medications can be used to prevent cancer in a few circumstances. Vitamin supplementation does not appear to be effective at preventing cancer.

Beta-Carotene supplementation increases lung cancer rates in those who are high risk. Vaccines have been developed that prevent infection by some carcinogenic viruses.

Unlike diagnostic efforts prompted by symptoms and medical signs , cancer screening involves efforts to detect cancer after it has formed, but before any noticeable symptoms appear.

Cancer screening is not available for many types of cancers. Even when tests are available, they may not be recommended for everyone.

Universal screening or mass screening involves screening everyone. The U. Screens for gastric cancer using photofluorography due to the high incidence there.

Genetic testing for individuals at high-risk of certain cancers is recommended by unofficial groups. Many treatment options for cancer exist.

The primary ones include surgery, chemotherapy , radiation therapy , hormonal therapy , targeted therapy and palliative care.

Which treatments are used depends on the type, location and grade of the cancer as well as the patient's health and preferences.

The treatment intent may or may not be curative. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti- neoplastic drugs chemotherapeutic agents as part of a standardized regimen.

The term encompasses a variety of drugs, which are divided into broad categories such as alkylating agents and antimetabolites. It was found that providing combined cytotoxic drugs is better than a single drug; a process called the combination therapy ; which has an advantage in the statistics of survival and response to the tumor and in the progress of the disease.

However, generally it is not certain whether combination chemotherapy leads to better health outcomes, when both survival and toxicity are considered.

Targeted therapy is a form of chemotherapy that targets specific molecular differences between cancer and normal cells. The first targeted therapies blocked the estrogen receptor molecule, inhibiting the growth of breast cancer.

Another common example is the class of Bcr-Abl inhibitors , which are used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia CML. The efficacy of chemotherapy depends on the type of cancer and the stage.

In combination with surgery, chemotherapy has proven useful in cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer , osteogenic sarcoma , testicular cancer , ovarian cancer and certain lung cancers.

Even when chemotherapy does not provide a permanent cure, it may be useful to reduce symptoms such as pain or to reduce the size of an inoperable tumor in the hope that surgery will become possible in the future.

Radiation therapy involves the use of ionizing radiation in an attempt to either cure or improve symptoms. It works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue, killing it.

To spare normal tissues such as skin or organs, which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor , shaped radiation beams are aimed from multiple exposure angles to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their response to radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is used in about half of cases.

The radiation can be either from internal sources brachytherapy or external sources. The radiation is most commonly low energy X-rays for treating skin cancers, while higher energy X-rays are used for cancers within the body.

For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer , it may be used alone. Surgery is the primary method of treatment for most isolated, solid cancers and may play a role in palliation and prolongation of survival.

It is typically an important part of definitive diagnosis and staging of tumors, as biopsies are usually required.

In localized cancer, surgery typically attempts to remove the entire mass along with, in certain cases, the lymph nodes in the area.

For some types of cancer this is sufficient to eliminate the cancer. Palliative care is treatment that attempts to help the patient feel better and may be combined with an attempt to treat the cancer.

Palliative care includes action to reduce physical, emotional, spiritual and psycho-social distress.

Unlike treatment that is aimed at directly killing cancer cells, the primary goal of palliative care is to improve quality of life. People at all stages of cancer treatment typically receive some kind of palliative care.

In some cases, medical specialty professional organizations recommend that patients and physicians respond to cancer only with palliative care.

Palliative care may be confused with hospice and therefore only indicated when people approach end of life. Like hospice care, palliative care attempts to help the patient cope with their immediate needs and to increase comfort.

Unlike hospice care, palliative care does not require people to stop treatment aimed at the cancer. Multiple national medical guidelines recommend early palliative care for patients whose cancer has produced distressing symptoms or who need help coping with their illness.

In patients first diagnosed with metastatic disease, palliative care may be immediately indicated. Palliative care is indicated for patients with a prognosis of less than 12 months of life even given aggressive treatment.

A variety of therapies using immunotherapy , stimulating or helping the immune system to fight cancer, have come into use since Approaches include antibodies , checkpoint therapy, and adoptive cell transfer.

Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. Lasers are most commonly used to treat superficial cancers that are on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs.

It is used to treat basal cell skin cancer and the very early stages of others like cervical, penile, vaginal, vulvar, and non-small cell lung cancer.

It is often combined with other treatments, such as surgery , chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT , or interstitial laser photocoagulation , uses lasers to treat some cancers using hyperthermia, which uses heat to shrink tumors by damaging or killing cancer cells.

Laser are more precise than surgery and cause less damage, pain, bleeding, swelling, and scarring. A disadvantage is surgeons must have specialized training.

It may be more expensive than other treatments. Complementary and alternative cancer treatments are a diverse group of therapies, practices and products that are not part of conventional medicine.

Some alternative treatments have been investigated and shown to be ineffective but still continue to be marketed and promoted.

Cancer researcher Andrew J. Vickers stated, "The label 'unproven' is inappropriate for such therapies; it is time to assert that many alternative cancer therapies have been 'disproven'.

Survival rates vary by cancer type and by the stage at which it is diagnosed, ranging from majority survival to complete mortality five years after diagnosis.

Once a cancer has metastasized, prognosis normally becomes much worse. About half of patients receiving treatment for invasive cancer excluding carcinoma in situ and non-melanoma skin cancers die from that cancer or its treatment.

Survival is worse in the developing world , [23] partly because the types of cancer that are most common there are harder to treat than those associated with developed countries.

Those who survive cancer develop a second primary cancer at about twice the rate of those never diagnosed. Predicting short- or long-term survival depends on many factors.

The most important are the cancer type and the patient's age and overall health. Those who are frail with other health problems have lower survival rates than otherwise healthy people.

Centenarians are unlikely to survive for five years even if treatment is successful. People who report a higher quality of life tend to survive longer.

Additionally, patients with worse prognoses may be depressed or report poorer quality of life because they perceive that their condition is likely to be fatal.

People with cancer have an increased risk of blood clots in their veins which can be life-threatening. Estimates are that in , In , approximately The most common as of [update] are lung cancer 1.

Deaths from cancer were 5. Weinberg , "If we lived long enough, sooner or later we all would get cancer. Some slow-growing cancers are particularly common, but often are not fatal.

Cancer has existed for all of human history. In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, it became acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death.

The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius , a follower of Descartes , believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer.

His contemporary Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads and concluded that it was contagious.

The physician John Hill described tobacco snuff as the cause of nose cancer in This view of the disease was first formulated by the English surgeon Campbell De Morgan between and Although many diseases such as heart failure may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos.

The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma.

Western conceptions of patients' rights for people with cancer include a duty to fully disclose the medical situation to the person, and the right to engage in shared decision-making in a way that respects the person's own values.

In other cultures, other rights and values are preferred. For example, most African cultures value whole families rather than individualism.

In parts of Africa, a diagnosis is commonly made so late that cure is not possible, and treatment, if available at all, would quickly bankrupt the family.

As a result of these factors, African healthcare providers tend to let family members decide whether, when and how to disclose the diagnosis, and they tend to do so slowly and circuitously, as the person shows interest and an ability to cope with the grim news.

In the United States and some other cultures, cancer is regarded as a disease that must be "fought" to end the "civil insurrection"; a War on Cancer was declared in the US.

Military metaphors are particularly common in descriptions of cancer's human effects, and they emphasize both the state of the patient's health and the need to take immediate, decisive actions himself rather than to delay, to ignore or to rely entirely on others.

The military metaphors also help rationalize radical, destructive treatments. In the s, a relatively popular alternative cancer treatment in the US was a specialized form of talk therapy , based on the idea that cancer was caused by a bad attitude.

Some psychotherapists said that treatment to change the patient's outlook on life would cure the cancer. One idea about why people with cancer are blamed or stigmatized, called the just-world hypothesis , is that blaming cancer on the patient's actions or attitudes allows the blamers to regain a sense of control.

This is based upon the blamers' belief that the world is fundamentally just and so any dangerous illness, like cancer, must be a type of punishment for bad choices, because in a just world, bad things would not happen to good people.

Cancer causes also costs for informal care. Indirect costs and informal care costs are typically estimated to exceed or equal the health care costs of cancer.

In the United States, cancer is included as a protected condition by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC , mainly due to the potential for cancer having discriminating effects on workers.

Employers may also make hiring or firing decisions based on misconceptions about cancer disabilities, if present. The EEOC provides interview guidelines for employers, as well as lists of possible solutions for assessing and accommodating employees with cancer.

Because cancer is a class of diseases, [] [] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single " cure for cancer " any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases.

Experimental cancer treatments are studied in clinical trials to compare the proposed treatment to the best existing treatment. Treatments that succeeded in one cancer type can be tested against other types.

The improved understanding of molecular biology and cellular biology due to cancer research has led to new treatments for cancer since US President Richard Nixon declared the " War on Cancer " in Competition for financial resources appears to have suppressed the creativity, cooperation, risk-taking and original thinking required to make fundamental discoveries, unduly favoring low-risk research into small incremental advancements over riskier, more innovative research.

Other consequences of competition appear to be many studies with dramatic claims whose results cannot be replicated and perverse incentives that encourage grantee institutions to grow without making sufficient investments in their own faculty and facilities.

Virotherapy , which uses convert viruses, is being studied. Cancer affects approximately 1 in 1, pregnant women.

The most common cancers found during pregnancy are the same as the most common cancers found in non-pregnant women during childbearing ages: breast cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian cancer and colorectal cancer.

Diagnosing a new cancer in a pregnant woman is difficult, in part because any symptoms are commonly assumed to be a normal discomfort associated with pregnancy.

As a result, cancer is typically discovered at a somewhat later stage than average. Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs magnetic resonance imaging , CT scans , ultrasounds and mammograms with fetal shielding are considered safe during pregnancy; some others, such as PET scans , are not.

Treatment is generally the same as for non-pregnant women. However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed cGy.

In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early deliveries are often used to advance the start of treatment.

Surgery is generally safe, but pelvic surgeries during the first trimester may cause miscarriage. Some treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester , increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss spontaneous abortions and stillbirths.

Elective abortions are not required and, for the most common forms and stages of cancer, do not improve the mother's survival. In a few instances, such as advanced uterine cancer, the pregnancy cannot be continued and in others, the patient may end the pregnancy so that she can begin aggressive chemotherapy.

Some treatments can interfere with the mother's ability to give birth vaginally or to breastfeed. Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis.

Also, when chemotherapy is given after birth, many of the drugs appear in breast milk, which could harm the baby. Veterinary oncology , concentrating mainly on cats and dogs, is a growing specialty in wealthy countries and the major forms of human treatment such as surgery and radiotherapy may be offered.

The most common types of cancer differ, but the cancer burden seems at least as high in pets as in humans. Animals, typically rodents, are often used in cancer research and studies of natural cancers in larger animals may benefit research into human cancer.

In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by transmission of the tumor cells themselves.

This phenomenon is seen in dogs with Sticker's sarcoma also known as canine transmissible venereal tumor , and in Tasmanian devils with devil facial tumour disease DFTD.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the group of diseases. For other uses, see Cancer disambiguation. For the Czech rock band, see Malignant Tumour.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth and spread. Play media. Main article: Cancer signs and symptoms. Main article: Metastasis.

Main article: Causes of cancer. Further information: Alcohol and cancer and Smoking and cancer. Main article: Diet and cancer. Main article: Infectious causes of cancer.

Main article: Radiation-induced cancer. Main article: Cancer syndrome. Main article: Carcinogenesis. Main article: Oncogenomics.

Main article: Cancer epigenetics. Further information: List of cancer types and List of oncology-related terms.

Introduction Aircraft. Introduction L Program. About the program Main Features Parameters Customers. The L aircraft perform a broad number of tasks from advanced and operations training over close air support up to reconnaissance missions and air defence.

AERO also continued with its program of upgrading the L's functions — in , the company successfully completed production of a new wing with an integral fuel tank, increasing the fuel storage capacity of the L and considerably increasing its flight range.

L aircraft serving by the international customers In April , the company signed a contract for the supply of ten single-seat LA and two two-seat LT1 to Iraqi Air Force.

As in the previous case, repairs of the aircraft and delivery of logistic equipment are part of the supply. The aircraft will be used for tactical flight training of US Air Force pilots.

Street prostitution has declined considerably. Prostitution is legal and regulated in Latvia. Prostitutes must register, must undergo monthly health checks, and must carry a health card; if they fail to do so, they can be penalized.

According to the law, "Any activity of the third person which promotes prostitution is prohibited", and, "Persons are prohibited to join in groups in order to offer and provide sexual services".

Prostitution in Lithuania is illegal, but it is common. Paying for sex is illegal the client commits a crime, but the prostitute does not.

In , it was estimated there were 3, sex workers [73] working in Norway [74] population 5 million. Paying for sex is illegal the client commits a crime, but not the prostitute.

The Sex Purchase Act Sexköpslagen , which makes it illegal to pay for sex, but not to be a prostitute, was adopted in , and was then unique.

Since then, similar laws have been passed in Norway and Iceland. The rationale underpinning the law was the view that prostitution was a form of violence against women so the crime consists in the customer paying for sex, not in the prostitute selling sexual services.

In Great Britain , prostitution itself is legal, [78] but a number of related activities, including soliciting in a public place, kerb crawling , keeping a brothel, pimping , and pandering , are outlawed.

The Policing and Crime Act makes it illegal to pay for sex with a prostitute who has been "subjected to force", and this is a strict liability offence clients can be prosecuted even if they didn't know the prostitute was forced.

Prostitution in Guernsey is legal, but related activities such as solicitation [82] and brothel keeping are prohibited. A large number of the prostitutes were French.

Prostitution is legal in the Isle of Man but related activities such as soliciting, procuring and brothel keeping are prohibited by the Sexual Offences Act There are few prostitutes permanently on the Isle of Man , most visiting the island on short term "tours".

A man and a woman were arrested on suspicion of committing prostitution offences in Douglas in A police spokesman said this was "an unusual and rare incident.

Prostitution in Jersey is legal, [86] but related activities such as keeping a brothel are outlawed. In it was estimated there were 35—40 prostitutes in Jersey.

Prostitution in Albania is illegal but widespread. Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early s, prostitution in Albania was virtually unknown.

The migration from rural areas to the cities, and economic problems that followed the collapse caused some women to turn to prostitution.

Street prostitution occurs near the centre of the capital, Tirana , mainly by Roma men and women. Brothels also found in the cities.

Prostitution in Andorra is illegal. Prostitution in Bosnia and Herzegovina is legal, but related activities such as solicitation and keeping a brothel are illegal.

Under the law, trafficking is a state-level crime that carries a sentence of up to 10 years in prison. Prostitution in Croatia is illegal, [39] but common.

Like in many other Southeast European countries, the problem of human trafficking for the purposes of sex is big in Croatia.

However, according to the U. State Department, Croatia is a tier 1 country, actively working to prevent the sex trade. The law does not prohibit prostitution itself, but operating brothels , organizing prostitution rings, living off the profits of prostitution, encouraging prostitution or forcing a person to engage in prostitution are illegal activities.

Cyprus has been criticised by the US State Department [97] for failing to control the flow of illegal immigrants and legal to be involved in forced prostitution.

Cyprus has gained a reputation for being a major transit point for people smugglers to transport women for the purposes of prostitution. International observers have criticized the government for its lack of action to prevent forced prostitution.

The law of Cyprus forbids forced but not voluntary prostitution. However, it is believed that many immigrants are hired as barmaids and coerced into prostitution by this method.

Prostitution is illegal, however in nightclubs, "konsomatrices", who sit with, eat with or entertain customers for money are allowed.

Konsomatrices are not allowed to have sex with customers, but this restriction is frequently flouted. After pleading no contest to the charges, the manager of Mexico nightclub, Mesut Kilicarslan, was sentenced to 15 days in prison for encouraging and profiting from prostitution.

By the year's end three more suspects were sentenced to imprisonment for encouraging and profiting from prostitution.

Northern Cyprus has become a destination for sex tourism. Prostitution is illegal in Gibraltar, as are related activities.

Prostitution is legal at the age of Persons engaged in prostitution must register at the local prefecture and carry a medical card that is updated every two weeks.

Greek authorities decided to implement a law which stipulates that all brothels must have permits. In Italy , prostitution, defined as the exchange of sexual acts for money, is legal, although organized prostitution, whether indoors in brothels or controlled by third parties, is prohibited.

Brothels were banned in Single-sex workers working from apartments are "tolerated". Loitering is permitted, but soliciting "unabashedly inviting clients on the street" is illegal.

Migrants with work or residence permits may work in sex work, and police cannot revoke residence permits and begin deportation procedures, as they tried failing by the Italian laws.

A report stated that were some , prostitutes in Italy. A euphemism often used to refer to prostitutes in Italy is Lucciole lit.

Prostitution in Kosovo is illegal, and can incur a prison sentence of up to sixty days. Prior to the Kosovo War following the Kosovo declaration of independence , prostitution was limited to serving the needs of locals.

As well as women turning to prostitution voluntarily, some were trafficked from Moldova, Bulgaria and the Ukraine. Prostitution itself is legal, [] but certain activities connected with it, such as running a brothel and loitering, are not.

Certain offences are punishable by sentences of up to two years in prison. In March , police and the Ministry for Social Policy signed a memorandum of understanding to formalize a screening process for all arrested persons engaged in prostitution to determine whether they were victims of trafficking or other abuses.

Prostitution in Montenegro is illegal. Montenegro is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking.

Victims of sex trafficking identified in Montenegro are primarily women and girls from Montenegro, neighbouring Balkan countries, and, to a lesser extent, other countries in Eastern Europe.

Sex trafficking victims are exploited in hospitality facilities, bars, restaurants, night clubs, and cafes. Prostitution in North Macedonia is legal, though with various restrictions, [39] and common.

Its executive board is exclusively made up of sex workers. The country is a major transit point for prostitution to the west. In Portugal, prostitution itself is legal, but it is illegal for a third party to profit from, promote, encourage or facilitate the prostitution of another.

Prostitution in San Marino is illegal, [5] and is not commonplace. Prostitution in Serbia is illegal, and can incur a prison sentence of up to 30 days, and up to 60 days for minors.

Pimping is illegal and can incur a prison sentence of between 6 months and 5 years, and between 1 and 10 years for pimping minors. Prostitution in Slovenia was decriminalised in June Prostitution itself is legal in Spain, but pimping is not.

Owning an establishment where prostitution takes place is legal if the owner neither derives financial gain from prostitution nor hires any person for the purposes of selling sex, because prostitution is not considered a job, and has no legal recognition.

Most places do not regulate prostitution, but the government of Catalonia offers licenses for persons "to gather people to practice prostitution".

Some places have implemented fines for street prostitution. In Turkey, prostitution is legal and regulated.

Prostitutes must register and acquire an ID card stating the dates of their health checks. Also, it is mandatory for registered prostitutes to have regular health checks for sexually transmitted diseases.

The police are allowed to check the authenticity of registered prostitutes to determine whether they have been examined properly and to ensure they see the health authorities if they don't.

Men cannot register under this regulation. Most sex workers, however, are unregistered, as local governments have made it a policy not to issue new registrations.

As a result, most sex workers in Turkey are not registered sex workers, working in violation of the law. Prostitution in Vatican City is illegal and is not commonplace.

Most sex workers are migrants , mainly from the former Eastern Bloc countries. Although sex work itself is not forbidden, Section b [] Sexueller Missbrauch von Jugendlichen Sexual abuse of juveniles allows for prosecution of clients of workers younger than Prostitution itself is legal in Belgium, but the law prohibits operating brothels and other forms of pimping [] or assisting immigration for the purpose of prostitution.

However, in practice enforcement can be lax and "unofficial" brothels are tolerated for example in Antwerp. Human trafficking or exploiting individuals for financial gain is punishable for a maximum prison sentence of 30 years.

A report commissioned by the National Bank of Belgium, [] estimated a turnover of million Euro in Prostitution in France the exchange of sexual acts for money was legal until April , but several surrounding activities were illegal, like operating a brothel, living off the avails pimping , and paying for sex with someone under the age of 18 the age of consent for sex is In the Napoleonic era , France became the model for the regulatory approach to prostitution.

In the 20th century, however, a policy shift became apparent. Brothels became illegal in , and France signed the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others in France thus became a major supporter of the international abolitionist movement for the eradication of prostitution.

Prostitution in Germany is legal, as are all aspects of the sex industry, including brothels, advertisement, and job offers through HR companies.

Full-service sex work is widespread and regulated by the German government , which levies taxes on it. However, the social stigmatization of sex work persists and many workers continue to lead a double life.

Prostitution in Liechtenstein is illegal, but is tolerated by the police as long as it is not street prostitution.

Prostitution itself is legal in Luxembourg , but activities associated with organised prostitution, such as profiting from operating brothels and prostitution rings or aiding prostitution, are illegal.

Street prostitution is only permitted in two streets near Luxembourg City 's railway station , [] and only between and The area is regulated by the city authorities, and patrolled regularly by the police.

Because of the number of prostitutes and limited area to work in, some work from other streets near the legalised area and risk being arrested.

Prostitution itself is legal in Monaco, but organized prostitution brothels, prostitution rings and other forms of pimping is prohibited.

Solicitation is also illegal. Forcing another person into prostitution is illegal, with penalties from six months to three years of imprisonment, plus a fine.

A husband who forces his wife to engage in prostitution can be sentenced to one to five years of imprisonment plus a fine.

Prostitution takes place most commonly in hotels, bars and nightclubs. Prostitution is legal and regulated in the Netherlands. Operating a brothel is also legal.

In the last few years, a significant number of brothels and "windows" have been closed because of suspected criminal activity.

De Wallen , the largest and best-known red-light district in Amsterdam, is a destination for international sex tourism.

Nobody knows how many have been lured into this profession under the false promise that they would get a job in a casino or restaurant, but abuse happens.

In an attempt to fight abuse, the minimum age for prostitues was raised from 18 to 21 years. Prostitution is concentrated in and around the big cities and in the border towns in the regions of Limburg , Groningen , Twente , West Brabant and Zeeland.

Prostitution occurs in various forms: 'window' and street prostitution, clubs, escort agencies, and home-based prostitution.

It is estimated that on average some 2, prostitutes are engaged daily in this form of prostitution. Street prostitution exists in 10 Dutch cities and involves on average some prostitutes daily.

Between 3, and 4, prostitutes are employed daily in — clubs and private brothels. The extent of other forms of prostitution such as escort agencies and home-based prostitution is much more difficult to estimate.

Home-based prostitution occurs in at least 17 municipalities and escort agencies exist in at least 28 municipalities. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, all legally operating brothels in the Netherlands were closed on the 15th of March , based on emergency orders per police district.

Since the Dutch government failed to provide financial compensation for sex workers especially those who have always paid taxes through the 'opting-in'-system , many of them were forced to continue to work, turning to illegal home-based prostitution.

Christian politicians in Dutch parliament claimed they wanted to help women to escape from exploitation, but sex workers' unions angrily responded that they don't want to be 'saved' by people who would like to forbid prostitution again.

The temporary ban on prostitution in the Netherlands will be lifted on the 1st of July , but could be reinstated later, at any time a serious coronavirus outbreak would occur.

De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district. Full-service sex work in Switzerland is legal and regulated; it has been legal since Trafficking, forcing people into prostitution and most forms of pimping are illegal.

One estimate puts the number of street sex workers in Zurich at In recent years the number of full-service sex workers has increased.

Many workers operate using newspaper advertisements, mobile phones and secondary rented apartments, some accept credit cards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Abolitionism - prostitution legal but unregulated and no organized activites like brothels and pimping. Neo-abolitionism - illegal to buy sex and for 3rd party involvement, legal to sell sex.

Decriminalization - No criminal penalties for prostitution. Legalization - prostitution legal and regulated. Prohibitionism - prostitution illegal.

Legality varies with local laws. Targeted therapy is a form of chemotherapy that targets specific molecular differences between cancer and normal cells.

The first targeted therapies blocked the estrogen receptor molecule, inhibiting the growth of breast cancer.

Another common example is the class of Bcr-Abl inhibitors , which are used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia CML.

The efficacy of chemotherapy depends on the type of cancer and the stage. In combination with surgery, chemotherapy has proven useful in cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer , osteogenic sarcoma , testicular cancer , ovarian cancer and certain lung cancers.

Even when chemotherapy does not provide a permanent cure, it may be useful to reduce symptoms such as pain or to reduce the size of an inoperable tumor in the hope that surgery will become possible in the future.

Radiation therapy involves the use of ionizing radiation in an attempt to either cure or improve symptoms.

It works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue, killing it. To spare normal tissues such as skin or organs, which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor , shaped radiation beams are aimed from multiple exposure angles to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their response to radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is used in about half of cases.

The radiation can be either from internal sources brachytherapy or external sources. The radiation is most commonly low energy X-rays for treating skin cancers, while higher energy X-rays are used for cancers within the body.

For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer , it may be used alone. Surgery is the primary method of treatment for most isolated, solid cancers and may play a role in palliation and prolongation of survival.

It is typically an important part of definitive diagnosis and staging of tumors, as biopsies are usually required.

In localized cancer, surgery typically attempts to remove the entire mass along with, in certain cases, the lymph nodes in the area.

For some types of cancer this is sufficient to eliminate the cancer. Palliative care is treatment that attempts to help the patient feel better and may be combined with an attempt to treat the cancer.

Palliative care includes action to reduce physical, emotional, spiritual and psycho-social distress. Unlike treatment that is aimed at directly killing cancer cells, the primary goal of palliative care is to improve quality of life.

People at all stages of cancer treatment typically receive some kind of palliative care. In some cases, medical specialty professional organizations recommend that patients and physicians respond to cancer only with palliative care.

Palliative care may be confused with hospice and therefore only indicated when people approach end of life. Like hospice care, palliative care attempts to help the patient cope with their immediate needs and to increase comfort.

Unlike hospice care, palliative care does not require people to stop treatment aimed at the cancer.

Multiple national medical guidelines recommend early palliative care for patients whose cancer has produced distressing symptoms or who need help coping with their illness.

In patients first diagnosed with metastatic disease, palliative care may be immediately indicated. Palliative care is indicated for patients with a prognosis of less than 12 months of life even given aggressive treatment.

A variety of therapies using immunotherapy , stimulating or helping the immune system to fight cancer, have come into use since Approaches include antibodies , checkpoint therapy, and adoptive cell transfer.

Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. Lasers are most commonly used to treat superficial cancers that are on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs.

It is used to treat basal cell skin cancer and the very early stages of others like cervical, penile, vaginal, vulvar, and non-small cell lung cancer.

It is often combined with other treatments, such as surgery , chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT , or interstitial laser photocoagulation , uses lasers to treat some cancers using hyperthermia, which uses heat to shrink tumors by damaging or killing cancer cells.

Laser are more precise than surgery and cause less damage, pain, bleeding, swelling, and scarring. A disadvantage is surgeons must have specialized training.

It may be more expensive than other treatments. Complementary and alternative cancer treatments are a diverse group of therapies, practices and products that are not part of conventional medicine.

Some alternative treatments have been investigated and shown to be ineffective but still continue to be marketed and promoted. Cancer researcher Andrew J.

Vickers stated, "The label 'unproven' is inappropriate for such therapies; it is time to assert that many alternative cancer therapies have been 'disproven'.

Survival rates vary by cancer type and by the stage at which it is diagnosed, ranging from majority survival to complete mortality five years after diagnosis.

Once a cancer has metastasized, prognosis normally becomes much worse. About half of patients receiving treatment for invasive cancer excluding carcinoma in situ and non-melanoma skin cancers die from that cancer or its treatment.

Survival is worse in the developing world , [23] partly because the types of cancer that are most common there are harder to treat than those associated with developed countries.

Those who survive cancer develop a second primary cancer at about twice the rate of those never diagnosed. Predicting short- or long-term survival depends on many factors.

The most important are the cancer type and the patient's age and overall health. Those who are frail with other health problems have lower survival rates than otherwise healthy people.

Centenarians are unlikely to survive for five years even if treatment is successful. People who report a higher quality of life tend to survive longer.

Additionally, patients with worse prognoses may be depressed or report poorer quality of life because they perceive that their condition is likely to be fatal.

People with cancer have an increased risk of blood clots in their veins which can be life-threatening. Estimates are that in , In , approximately The most common as of [update] are lung cancer 1.

Deaths from cancer were 5. Weinberg , "If we lived long enough, sooner or later we all would get cancer. Some slow-growing cancers are particularly common, but often are not fatal.

Cancer has existed for all of human history. In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, it became acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death.

The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius , a follower of Descartes , believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer.

His contemporary Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads and concluded that it was contagious.

The physician John Hill described tobacco snuff as the cause of nose cancer in This view of the disease was first formulated by the English surgeon Campbell De Morgan between and Although many diseases such as heart failure may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos.

The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries, rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma.

Western conceptions of patients' rights for people with cancer include a duty to fully disclose the medical situation to the person, and the right to engage in shared decision-making in a way that respects the person's own values.

In other cultures, other rights and values are preferred. For example, most African cultures value whole families rather than individualism.

In parts of Africa, a diagnosis is commonly made so late that cure is not possible, and treatment, if available at all, would quickly bankrupt the family.

As a result of these factors, African healthcare providers tend to let family members decide whether, when and how to disclose the diagnosis, and they tend to do so slowly and circuitously, as the person shows interest and an ability to cope with the grim news.

In the United States and some other cultures, cancer is regarded as a disease that must be "fought" to end the "civil insurrection"; a War on Cancer was declared in the US.

Military metaphors are particularly common in descriptions of cancer's human effects, and they emphasize both the state of the patient's health and the need to take immediate, decisive actions himself rather than to delay, to ignore or to rely entirely on others.

The military metaphors also help rationalize radical, destructive treatments. In the s, a relatively popular alternative cancer treatment in the US was a specialized form of talk therapy , based on the idea that cancer was caused by a bad attitude.

Some psychotherapists said that treatment to change the patient's outlook on life would cure the cancer. One idea about why people with cancer are blamed or stigmatized, called the just-world hypothesis , is that blaming cancer on the patient's actions or attitudes allows the blamers to regain a sense of control.

This is based upon the blamers' belief that the world is fundamentally just and so any dangerous illness, like cancer, must be a type of punishment for bad choices, because in a just world, bad things would not happen to good people.

Cancer causes also costs for informal care. Indirect costs and informal care costs are typically estimated to exceed or equal the health care costs of cancer.

In the United States, cancer is included as a protected condition by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC , mainly due to the potential for cancer having discriminating effects on workers.

Employers may also make hiring or firing decisions based on misconceptions about cancer disabilities, if present. The EEOC provides interview guidelines for employers, as well as lists of possible solutions for assessing and accommodating employees with cancer.

Because cancer is a class of diseases, [] [] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single " cure for cancer " any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases.

Experimental cancer treatments are studied in clinical trials to compare the proposed treatment to the best existing treatment.

Treatments that succeeded in one cancer type can be tested against other types. The improved understanding of molecular biology and cellular biology due to cancer research has led to new treatments for cancer since US President Richard Nixon declared the " War on Cancer " in Competition for financial resources appears to have suppressed the creativity, cooperation, risk-taking and original thinking required to make fundamental discoveries, unduly favoring low-risk research into small incremental advancements over riskier, more innovative research.

Other consequences of competition appear to be many studies with dramatic claims whose results cannot be replicated and perverse incentives that encourage grantee institutions to grow without making sufficient investments in their own faculty and facilities.

Virotherapy , which uses convert viruses, is being studied. Cancer affects approximately 1 in 1, pregnant women.

The most common cancers found during pregnancy are the same as the most common cancers found in non-pregnant women during childbearing ages: breast cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian cancer and colorectal cancer.

Diagnosing a new cancer in a pregnant woman is difficult, in part because any symptoms are commonly assumed to be a normal discomfort associated with pregnancy.

As a result, cancer is typically discovered at a somewhat later stage than average. Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs magnetic resonance imaging , CT scans , ultrasounds and mammograms with fetal shielding are considered safe during pregnancy; some others, such as PET scans , are not.

Treatment is generally the same as for non-pregnant women. However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed cGy.

In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early deliveries are often used to advance the start of treatment.

Surgery is generally safe, but pelvic surgeries during the first trimester may cause miscarriage. Some treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester , increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss spontaneous abortions and stillbirths.

Elective abortions are not required and, for the most common forms and stages of cancer, do not improve the mother's survival. In a few instances, such as advanced uterine cancer, the pregnancy cannot be continued and in others, the patient may end the pregnancy so that she can begin aggressive chemotherapy.

Some treatments can interfere with the mother's ability to give birth vaginally or to breastfeed. Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis.

Also, when chemotherapy is given after birth, many of the drugs appear in breast milk, which could harm the baby.

Veterinary oncology , concentrating mainly on cats and dogs, is a growing specialty in wealthy countries and the major forms of human treatment such as surgery and radiotherapy may be offered.

The most common types of cancer differ, but the cancer burden seems at least as high in pets as in humans. Animals, typically rodents, are often used in cancer research and studies of natural cancers in larger animals may benefit research into human cancer.

In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by transmission of the tumor cells themselves.

This phenomenon is seen in dogs with Sticker's sarcoma also known as canine transmissible venereal tumor , and in Tasmanian devils with devil facial tumour disease DFTD.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the group of diseases. For other uses, see Cancer disambiguation. For the Czech rock band, see Malignant Tumour.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth and spread. Play media. Main article: Cancer signs and symptoms. Main article: Metastasis.

Main article: Causes of cancer. Further information: Alcohol and cancer and Smoking and cancer. Main article: Diet and cancer.

Main article: Infectious causes of cancer. Main article: Radiation-induced cancer. Main article: Cancer syndrome.

Main article: Carcinogenesis. Main article: Oncogenomics. Main article: Cancer epigenetics. Further information: List of cancer types and List of oncology-related terms.

Main article: Cancer prevention. Main article: Cancer screening. See also: Cancer syndrome. Main articles: Management of cancer and oncology.

Main article: Cancer immunotherapy. Main article: Lasers in cancer treatment. See also: Cancer survival rates , List of cancer mortality rates in the United States , and Cancer survivor.

Main article: Epidemiology of cancer. See also: List of countries by cancer rate. Age-standardized death rate from cancer per 10, people.

Main article: History of cancer. Main article: Cancer research. NHS Choices. Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 10 June World Health Organization.

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Chapter 1. Archived from the original on 12 July American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 14 July CA Cancer J Clin.

The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in ". British Journal of Cancer. Chapter 4. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Annual Review of Cancer Biology. Chapter 6. Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 11 September Cancer Nursing. Stubblefield, Michael W.

Cancer rehabilitation principles and practice. New York: Demos Medical. May The Lancet. Endocrine-Related Cancer.

Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 March Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Patterns in the U. Population: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

The term environment refers not only to air, water, and soil but also to substances and conditions at home and at the workplace, including diet, smoking, alcohol, drugs, exposure to chemicals, sunlight, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, infectious agents, etc.

Lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors are all aspects of our environment. Annual Review of Psychology.

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